• Publications of Helen F. Ladd

      • Books

          • HF Ladd and J Yinger.
          • (2014).
          • America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of Urban Policy.
          • JHU Press.
          Publication Description

          Identifies and measures the impact in broad national trends such as the urbanization of poverty, the shift from manufacturing to services, and middle-class flight to the suburbs. (Politcs/Current Events)

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • The Challenge of Fiscal Disparities for State and Local Governments.
          • Edward Elgar Pub.
          Publication Description

          This outstanding selection of Helen Ladd's work provides an overview of the policy-oriented research she has conducted in the area of state and local public finance during the past twenty-five years.

          • R Schafer and HF Ladd.
          • (1981).
          • Discrimination in Mortgage Lending.
          • MIT Press (MA).
          Publication Description

          This book substitutes rigorous and systematic analysis for the undocumented claims that have characterized the debate on "redlining"-the denial of mortgage money to poorer neighborhoods.

          • EB Fiske and HF Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • Elusive Equity: Education reform in post-Apartheid New Zealand.
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          Publication Description

          "Elusive Equity" chronicles South Africas efforts to fashion a racially equitable state education system from the ashes of apartheid.

          • EB Fiske and HF Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • When Schools Compete.
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          Publication Description

          Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform programs on an entire school system.

          • EB Fiske and HF Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • When Schools Compete.
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          Publication Description

          Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform programs on an entire school system.

          • EB Fiske and HF Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • When Schools Compete.
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          Publication Description

          Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform programs on an entire school system.

          • HF Ladd and EB Fiske.
          • (2008).
          • Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy.
          • Routledge.
          • (Official handbook of the American Education Finance Association.)
          • [web]
          • Edward B. Fiske and Helen F. Ladd.
          • (2004).
          • Elusive Equity: Education Reform in Post Apartheid South Africa..
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          • ((Also available as an HSRC press publication, Capetown, South Africa, 2005).)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (February 2002).
          • Market-Based Reforms in Education.
          • Economic Policy Institute: Washington, D.C..
          • Edward B. Fiske and Helen F. Ladd.
          • (2000).
          • When Schools Compete: A Cautionary Tale.
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          • H.F. Ladd and Janet Hansen.
          • (November, 1999).
          • Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools.
          • H.F. Ladd, with Janet Hansen and Rosemary A. Chalk, eds.
          • (January, 1999).
          • Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1999).
          • The Challenge of Fiscal Disparities for State and Governments: The Selected Essays of Helen F. Ladd.
          • Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1998).
          • Local Government Tax and Land Use Policy: Understanding the Links (primary author and editor).
          • Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
          • (Selected by Choice as an outstanding academic book in 1998)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1996).
          • Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education (editor, author of introduction and coauthor of two chapters).
          • Brookings Institution.
          • H.F. Ladd and John Yinger.
          • (1989).
          • America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of Urban Policy.
          • Johns Hopkins University Press.
          • (Updated edition in paperback, with new epilogue, 1991)
          • H.F. Ladd and John Yinger, Howard Bloom and Axel Borsch-Supan.
          • (1988).
          • Property Taxes and House Values: The Theory and Estimation of Intrajurisdictional Property Tax Capitalization.
          • Academic Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1981).
          • Tax and Expenditure Limitations (author of introduction and co-editor with Nicolaus Tideman.
          • Urban Institute.
      • NBER Working Papers

          • H.F. Ladd, with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (June, 2007).
          • "Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects.".
          • ,
          • Working Paper 142787
          • .
          Publication Description

          Also published in The Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER), 2007. Forthcoming in the Journal of Human Resources.

          • C Clotfelter, H Ladd and J Vigdor.
          • (2007).
          • How and Why Do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement?.
          • ,
          • Working Paper 142786
          • .
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Also published in The Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER), 2007.

          • H.F. Ladd, with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (Fall 2006).
          • Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness.
          • ,
          • Working Paper 11936
          • .
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Also published in The Journal of Human Resources.

          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (Summer 2006).
          • Federal Oversight, Local Control, and the Specter of 'Resegregation' in Southern Schools.
          • ,
          • Working Paper 11086
          • .
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Also published in teh American Law and Economics Review.

          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter, Elizabeth Glennie and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (June 2006).
          • Would Higher Salaries Keep Teachers in High-Poverty Schools? Evidence from a Policy Intervention in North Carolina.
          • ,
          • Working Paper 12285
          • .
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (May, 2006).
          • The Academic Achievement Gap in Grades 3 to 8.
          • ,
          • Working Paper 12207
          • .
          • [web]
      • Book Reviews

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2005).
          • Public sector management in New Zealand: Lessons and challenges.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 24
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 193-196.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2010).
          • Review of Norton Grubb, The Money Myth: School Resources, Outcomes and Equity.
          • The Journal of Economic Literature
          • .
          • (March)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (Summer, 1996).
          • The price of federalism by Paul E. Peterson. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1995, 231 pp., $36.95 cloth, $15.95 paper.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 15
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 469-472.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1993).
          • Review of Ester Fuchs, Mayors and Money.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (September, 1986).
          • Review of John M. Quigley and Daniel L. Rubinfeld, eds., American Domestic Priorities: An Economic Appraisal in Journal of Economic Literature.
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1986).
          • Review of George Break, ed., State and local Finance: The Pressures of the 1980's.
          • Journal of Economic Literature
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (January, 1984).
          • Review of John F. Due and John L. Mikesell, Sales Taxation: State and Local Structure and Administration.
          • Municipal Finance Officers Association, Resources in Review
          • .
      • Journal Articles

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2015).
          • The aftermath of accelerating algebra: Evidence from district policy initiatives.
          Publication Description

          © 2015 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. The proportion of students taking a first algebra course in middle school has doubled over the past generation and there have been calls to make eighth grade algebra universal. We use significant policy shifts in the timing of algebra in two large North Carolina districts to infer the impact of accelerated entry into algebra on student performance in math courses as students progress through high school. We find no evidence of a positive mean impact of acceleration in any specification and significant negative effects on performance in both Algebra I and the traditional followup course, Geometry. Accelerating algebra to middle school appears benign or beneficial for higherperforming students but unambiguously harmful to the lowest performers. We consider whether the effects reflect the reliance on less-qualified teachers and conclude that this mechanism explains only a small fraction of the result.

          • JACOBL VIGDOR, HELENF LADD and ERIKA MARTINEZ.
          • (2014).
          • SCALING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: HOME COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT.
          • Economic Inquiry
          • ,
          • 1103-1119.
          • (Forthcoming)
          • [web]
          • JL Vigdor, HF Ladd and E Martinez.
          • (2014).
          • Scaling the digital divide: Home computer technology and student achievement.
          • Economic Inquiry
          • ,
          • 52
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 1103-1119.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Does differential access to computer technology at home compound the educational disparities between rich and poor? Would a program of government provision of computers to early secondary school students reduce these disparities? We use administrative data on North Carolina public school students to corroborate earlier surveys that document broad racial and socioeconomic gaps in home computer access and use. Using within-student variation in home computer access, and across-ZIP code variation in the timing of the introduction of high-speed Internet service, we also demonstrate that the introduction of home computer technology is associated with modest, but statistically significant and persistent negative impacts on student math and reading test scores. Further evidence suggests that providing universal access to home computers and high-speed Internet access would broaden, rather than narrow, math and reading achievement gaps. © 2014 Western Economic Association International.

          • HF Ladd, CG Muschkin and KA Dodge.
          • (2013).
          • From Birth to School: Early Childhood Initiatives and Third-Grade Outcomes in North Carolina.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 33
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 162-187.
          • (PDF published on-line Nov. 4, 2013)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This study examines the community-wide effects of two statewide early childhood policy initiatives in North Carolina. One initiative provides funding to improve the quality of child care services at the county level for all children between the ages of 0 to 5, and the other provides funding for preschool slots for disadvantaged four-year-olds. Differences across counties in the timing of the rollout and in the magnitude of the state financial investments per child provide the variation in programs needed to estimate their effects on schooling outcomes in third grade. We find robust positive effects of each program on third-grade test scores in both reading and math. These effects can best be explained by a combination of direct benefits for participants and spillover benefits for others. Our preferred models suggest that the combined average effects on test scores of investments in both programs at 2009 funding levels are equivalent to two to four months of instruction in grade 3. © 2013 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd, CG Muschkin and JL Vigdor.
          • (2013).
          • Success in Community College: Do Institutions Differ?.
          • Research in Higher Education
          • ,
          • 54
          • (7)
          • ,
          • 1-20.
          • (Earlier version available as Calder working paper #74)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Community colleges are complex organizations and assessing their performance, though important, is difficult. Compared to 4-year colleges and universities, community colleges serve a more diverse population and provide a wider variety of educational programs that include continuing education and technical training for adults, and diplomas, associates degrees, and transfer credits for recent high school graduates. Focusing solely on the latter programs of North Carolina's community colleges, we measure the success of each college along two dimensions: attainment of an applied diploma or degree; or completion of the coursework required to transfer to a 4-year college or university. We address three questions. First, how much variation is there across the institutions in these measures of student success? Second, how do these measures of success differ across institutions after we adjust for the characteristics of the enrolled students? Third, how do our measures compare to the measures of success used by the North Carolina Community College System? Although we find variation along both dimensions of success, we also find that part of this variation is attributable to differences in the kinds of students who attend various colleges. Once we correct for such differences, we find that it is not possible to distinguish most of the system's colleges from one another along either dimension. Top-performing institutions, however, can be distinguished from the most poorly performing ones. Finally, our adjusted rates of success show little correlation either to measurable aspects of the various colleges or to the metrics used by the state. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

          • SC Fuller and HF Ladd.
          • (2013).
          • School-based accountability and the distribution of teacher quality across grades in elementary school.
          • Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • 8
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 528-559.
          • (Also available as Calder working paper #75)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          We use North Carolina data to explore whether the quality of teachers in the lower elementary grades (K-2) falls short of teacher quality in the upper grades (3-5) and to examine the hypothesis that school accountability pressures contribute to such quality shortfalls. Our concern with the early grades arises from recent studies highlighting how children's experiences in those years have lasting effects on their later outcomes. Using two credentials-based measures of teacher quality, we document within-school quality shortfalls in the lower grades, and show that the shortfalls increased with the introduction of No Child Left Behind. Consistent with that pattern, we find that schools responded to accountability pressures by moving their weaker teachers down to the lower grades and stronger teachers up to the higher grades. These findings support the view that accountability pressure induces schools to pursue actions that work to the disadvantage of children in the lower grades.© 2013 Association for Education Finance and Policy.

          • HF Ladd, CT Clotfelter and J Vigdor.
          • (September/October, 2012).
          • New Destinations, New Trajectories? The Educational Progress of Hispanic Youth in North Carolina, Special Section on Children from Immigrant Families.
          • Child Development
          • ,
          • 83
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 1608-1622.
          • (R. Crosnoe and J. Lockhman, eds.)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Since 1990, Latin American immigrants to the United States have dispersed beyond traditional gateway regions to a number of "new destinations." Both theory and past empirical evidence provide mixed guidance as to whether the children of these immigrants are adversely affected by residing in a nontraditional destination. This study uses administrative public school data to study over 2,800 8- to 18-year-old Hispanic youth in one new destination, North Carolina. Conditional on third-grade socioeconomic indicators, Hispanic youth who arrive by age 9 and remain enrolled in North Carolina public schools close achievement gaps with socioeconomically similar White students by sixth grade and exhibit significantly lower high school dropout rates. Their performance resembles that of first-generation youth in more established immigration gateways.

          • HF Ladd and D Figlio.
          • (2013).
          • The Economics of School Accountability.
          • International Encyclopedia of Education
          • .
          • HFLWM Johnson and J Ludwig.
          • (2002).
          • The Benefits and Costs of Residenital Mobility Programs for the Poor.
          • Housing Studies
          • ,
          • 17
          • ,
          • 125-138.
          • HFLWJ Yinger.
          • (1990).
          • The Determinants of State Assistance to Central Citiis.
          • National Tax Journal
          • ,
          • XLII
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 413-428.
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2012).
          • Education and Poverty: Confronting the Evidence, Presidential address to the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 31
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 203-227.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Current U.S. policy initiatives to improve the U.S. education system, including No Child Left Behind, test-based evaluation of teachers, and the promotion of competition are misguided because they either deny or set to the side a basic body of evidence documenting that students from disadvantaged households on average perform less well in school than those from more advantaged families. Because these policy initiatives do not directly address the educational challenges experienced by disadvantaged students, they have contributed little-and are not likely to contribute much in the future-to raising overall student achievement or to reducing achievement and educational attainment gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Moreover, such policies have the potential to do serious harm. Addressing the educational challenges faced by children from disadvantaged families will require a broader and bolder approach to education policy than the recent efforts to reform schools. © 2012 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2008).
          • School Segregation Under Color-blind Jurisprudence: The Case of North Carolina.
          • Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law
          • ,
          • 16
          • (1)
          • .
          • HF Ladd Edward and B Fiske.
          • (2010).
          • The Dutch Experience with Weighted Student Funding: Some Lessons for the U.S..
          • Phi Delta Kappan
          • .
          • (September, pp.49-53)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • Reflections on Equity, Adequacy, and Weighted Student Funding.
          • Journal of Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • 3
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 402-423.
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (May 2003).
          • Segregation and Resegregation in North Carolina's Public School Classrooms.
          • North Carolina Law Review
          • ,
          • 81
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 1463-1511.
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd, JL Vigdor and J Wheeler.
          • (June, 2007).
          • High Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and Principals.
          • North Carolina Law Review
          • ,
          • 85
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 1345-1380.
          • [web]
          • HFLWJ Ludwig and G Duncan.
          • (2001).
          • The Effects of Urban Poverty on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment.
          • Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs
          • ,
          • 2
          • .
          • (Recognized by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development as an exemplary paper, 2000)
          • HFLWR Bifulco.
          • (Fall 2005).
          • Results [about charter schools] from the Tar Heel State.
          • Education Next
          • ,
          • 60-66.
          • HFLWR Walsh.
          • (February 2002).
          • Implementing Value-Added Measures of School Effectiveness: Getting the Incentives Right.
          • Economics of Education Review
          • ,
          • 21
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-17.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (December, 1978).
          • State Limitations on Local Taxing and Spending Powers: A Response.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (June, 1979).
          • Tax Limitations and Educational Finance: Comments.
          • National Tax Journal, Supplement
          • .
          • (Proceedings of a Conference on Tax and Expenditure Limitations, University of California, Santa Barbara, December 1978)
          • HFLWA Howitt, H Leonard and A Weeks.
          • (Fall, 1983).
          • Physical Infrastructure in Boston.
          • Urban Resources
          • ,
          • 1
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 5-11.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (Fall, 1990).
          • Introduction of Symposium on Managing Local Development.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 9
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 484-486.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (Summer, 1996).
          • Catalyst for Learning: Recognition and Reward Programs in the Public Schools.
          • The Brookings Review
          • ,
          • 14-17.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (June, 1975).
          • Local Education Expenditures, Fiscal Capacity, and the Composition of the Property Tax Base.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (June, 1976).
          • Statewide Taxation of Commercial and Industrial Property for Education.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (March, 1978).
          • An Economic Evaluation of State Limitations on Local Taxing and Spending Powers.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (May, 1982).
          • Equal Credit Opportunity: Women and Mortgage Credit.
          • American Economic Review
          • .
          • HFLWKL Bradbury and C Christopherson.
          • (January/February 1982).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts, Part I.
          • New England Economic Review
          • .
          • HFLWFC Doolittle.
          • (September, 1982).
          • Which Level of Government Should Assist Poor People?.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HFLWJB Wilson.
          • (June, 1982).
          • Why Voters Support Tax Limitations: Evidence from Massachusetts' Proposition 2 1/2.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HFLWJB Wilson.
          • (Winter, 1983).
          • Who Supports Tax Limitations: Evidence from Massachusetts' Proposition 2 1/2.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • .
          • HFLWKL Bradbury, M Perrault, A Reschovsky and J Yinger.
          • (June, 1984).
          • State Aid to Offset Fiscal Disparities Across Communities.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HFLWJB Wilson.
          • (Winter, 1985).
          • Education and Tax Limitations: Evidence from Massachusetts' Proposition 2 1/2.
          • Journal of Education Finance
          • .
          • HFLWKL Bradbury.
          • (March/April 1985).
          • Changes in the Revenue-Raising Capacity of U.S. Cities: 1970-1982.
          • New England Economic Review
          • .
          • (A shorter version of this paper, entiteld "Changes in the Fiscal Capacity of U.S. Cities: 1970-1982," is available in the proceedings of the 1984 Annual Conference of the National Tax Association - Tax Institute of America)
          • HFLWKL Bradbury.
          • (July/August 1987).
          • City Property Taxes: The Effects of Economic Change and Competitive Pressures.
          • New England Economic Review
          • .
          • HFLWK Bradbury.
          • (December, 1988).
          • City Taxes and City Property Tax Bases.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (May, 1990).
          • State Assistance to Local Governments: Changes During the 1980s.
          • American Economic Review
          • ,
          • 80
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 171-175.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (December, 1991).
          • The State Aid Decision: Changes in State Aid to Local Governments, 1982-1987.
          • National Tax Journal
          • ,
          • 44
          • (4, Part 2)
          • ,
          • 477-496.
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (October, 1992).
          • Mimicking of Local Tax Burdens Among Neighboring Counties.
          • Public Finance Quarterly
          • ,
          • 20
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 450-467.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (Winter, 1993).
          • State Responses to the TRA86 Revenue Windfalls: A New Test of the Flypaper Effect.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 12
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 82-103.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (August, 1994).
          • Spatially Targeted Economic Development Strategies: Do They Work?.
          • Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research
          • ,
          • 1
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 193-218.
          • HFLWJ Yinger.
          • (March, 1994).
          • The Case for Equalizing Aid.
          • National Tax Journal
          • ,
          • XLVII
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 211-224.
          • [web]
          • HFLWW Gentry.
          • (December, 1994).
          • State Tax Structure and Multiple Policy Objectives.
          • National Tax Journal
          • .
          • HFLWE Harris.
          • (Summer, 1995).
          • Statewide Taxation of Nonresidential Property for Education.
          • Journal of Education Finance
          • ,
          • 103-122.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (Winter, 1995).
          • The Tax Expenditure Concept After 25 Years.
          • NTA Forum
          • ,
          • 1-5.
          • (Short Version. Presidential address to the National Tax Association, delivered in Charleston, South Carolina, November 1994)
          • HFLWJ Ludwig.
          • (2013).
          • Residential Relocation Policies in the United States: The Moving to Opportunity Demonstration.
          • Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment
          • ,
          • 14
          • (1)
          • .
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2013).
          • School Based Educational Accountability Systems: The Promise and the Pitfalls.
          • National Tax Journal
          • ,
          • LIV
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 385-400.
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2012).
          • New destinations, new trajectories? The educational progress of Hispanic youth in North Carolina..
          • Child Dev
          • ,
          • 83
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 1608-1622.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Since 1990, Latin American immigrants to the United States have dispersed beyond traditional gateway regions to a number of "new destinations." Both theory and past empirical evidence provide mixed guidance as to whether the children of these immigrants are adversely affected by residing in a nontraditional destination. This study uses administrative public school data to study over 2,800 8- to 18-year-old Hispanic youth in one new destination, North Carolina. Conditional on third-grade socioeconomic indicators, Hispanic youth who arrive by age 9 and remain enrolled in North Carolina public schools close achievement gaps with socioeconomically similar White students by sixth grade and exhibit significantly lower high school dropout rates. Their performance resembles that of first-generation youth in more established immigration gateways.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2012).
          • Education and Poverty: Confronting the Evidence.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 31
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 203-227.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Current U.S. policy initiatives to improve the U.S. education system, including No Child Left Behind, test-based evaluation of teachers, and the promotion of competition are misguided because they either deny or set to the side a basic body of evidence documenting that students from disadvantaged households on average perform less well in school than those from more advantaged families. Because these policy initiatives do not directly address the educational challenges experienced by disadvantaged students, they have contributed little-and are not likely to contribute much in the future-to raising overall student achievement or to reducing achievement and educational attainment gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Moreover, such policies have the potential to do serious harm. Addressing the educational challenges faced by children from disadvantaged families will require a broader and bolder approach to education policy than the recent efforts to reform schools. © 2012 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2011).
          • Brookings volume.
          • .
          • (comments on Dee and Jacob on NCLB)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2011).
          • Teachers' Perceptions of their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Planned and Actual teacher Movement?.
          • Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
          • ,
          • Summer Issue
          • ,
          • 33
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 235-261.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers' perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools. Based on rich administrative data for North Carolina combined with a 2006 statewide survey administered to all teachers in the state, the study documents that working conditions are highly predictive of teachers' intended movement away from their schools, independent of other school characteristics such as the racial mix of students. Moreover, school leadership, broadly defined, emerges as the most salient dimension of working conditions. Although teachers' perceptions of their working conditions are less predictive of one-year actual departure rates than of intended rates, their predictive power is still on a par with that of other school characteristics. The models are estimated separately for elementary, middle and high school teachers and generate some policy-relevant differences among the three levels. © 2011 AERA.

          • HF Ladd and EB Fiske.
          • (2011).
          • Weighted student funding in the Netherlands: A model for the U.S.?.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • Summer issue
          • ,
          • 30
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 470-498.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Although a relatively new idea in the U.S., weighted student funding (WSF) for individual schools has a long history in the Netherlands. This country of about 16.5 million people has been using a version of WSF for all its primary schools (serving children from age 4 to 12) for 25 years. In this article we describe and evaluate the Dutch system and explore what insights there might be for the U.S., taking into account the very different cultural and normative contexts of the two countries. We find that, compared to those with few weighted students, Dutch schools with high proportions of weighted students have almost 60 percent more teachers per pupil as well as more support staff per teacher. Even these large resource advantages, however, are not sufficient by themselves to eliminate all quality shortfalls in the high-weight schools, where quality is measured by school policies and practices. We conclude that weighted student funding for schools within districts in the U.S. is not likely to deliver the same highly progressive funding patterns as in the Netherlands because of the complex, multilayered U.S. education system and the absence of a political consensus in favor of generous weights. © 2011 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2011).
          • Teacher Mobility, school Segregation, and Pay-Based policies to level the playing field.
          • Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • Summer issue
          • ,
          • 6
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 399-438.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Research has consistently shown that teacher quality is distributed very unevenly among schools, to the clear disadvantage of minority students and those from low-income families. Using North Carolina data on the length of time individual teachers remain in their schools, we examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this pattern. We conclude that salary differentials are a far less effective tool for retaining teachers with strong preservice qualifications than for retaining other teachers in schools with high proportions of minority students. Consequently large salary differences would be needed to level the playing field when schools are segregated. This conclusion reflects our finding that teachers with stronger qualifications are both more responsive to the racial and socioeconomic mix of a school's students and less responsive to salary than are their less-qualified counterparts when making decisions about remaining in their current school, moving to another school or district, or leaving the teaching profession. © 2011 Association for Education Finance and Policy.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2010).
          • Education Inspectorate Systems in New Zealand and the Netherlands.
          • Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • 5
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 378-392.
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2010).
          • The Money Myth: School Resources, Outcomes, and Equity.
          • JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE
          • ,
          • 48
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 162-166.
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd, Charles T. Clotfelter, Jacob Vigdor.
          • (2010).
          • Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross Subject Analysis with Fixed Effects.
          • Journal of Human Resources
          • .
          • (45 (3), 655-681)
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2010).
          • Comment by Helen F. Ladd.
          • Brookings Papers on Economic Activity
          • ,
          • 200-207.
          • B Fiske and HF Ladd.
          • (2010).
          • The dutch experience with weighted student funding.
          • Phi Delta Kappan
          • ,
          • 92
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 49-53.
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2010).
          • Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects.
          • Journal of Human Resources
          • ,
          • 45
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 655-681.
          Publication Description

          We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials, particularly licensure and certification, affects student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large enough to be policy relevant. Our findings imply that the uneven distribution of teacher credentials by race and socioeconomic status of high school students-a pattern we also document-contributes to achievement gaps in high school. In addition, some troubling findings emerge related to the gender and race of the teachers. © 2010 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

          • HF Ladd and DL Lauen.
          • (2010).
          • Status versus growth: The distributional effects of school accountability policies.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 29
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 426-450.
          • (29 (3), 426-450,Also available as a CALDER working paper (caldercenter.org))
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the effectiveness of schools based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure associated with status and growth approaches to school accountability affect student achievement at different points in the prior-year achievement distribution. Achievement gains for students below the proficiency cut point emerge in schools failing either type of accountability standard, with the effects clearer for math than for reading. In contrast to prior research highlighting the possibility of educational triage, we find little or no evidence that failing schools in North Carolina ignore the students far below proficiency under either approach. Importantly, we find that the status, but not the growth, approach reduces the reading achievement of higher performing students. Our analysis suggests that the distributional effects of accountability pressure depend not only on the type of pressure for which schools are held accountable (status or growth), but also the tested subject. © 2010 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2009).
          • Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying About in the United States?.
          • Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • 4
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 115-149.
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd, Charles T. Clotfelter, Jacob L. Vigdor.
          • (2009).
          • Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying About in the U.S.?.
          • Journal of Education Finance
          • ,
          • 4
          • (29)
          • .
          • R Bifulco, HF Ladd and SL Ross.
          • (2009).
          • Public school choice and integration evidence from Durham, North Carolina.
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 38
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 71-85.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Using evidence from Durham, North Carolina, we examine the impact of school choice programs on racial and class-based segregation across schools. Reasonable assumptions about the distribution of preferences over race, class, and school characteristics suggest that the segregating choices of students from advantaged backgrounds are likely to outweigh any integrating choices by disadvantaged students. The results of our empirical analysis are consistent with these theoretical considerations. Using information on the actual schools students attend and on the schools in their assigned attendance zones, we find that schools in Durham are more segregated by race and class as a result of school choice programs than they would be if all students attended their geographically assigned schools. In addition, we find that the effects of choice on segregation by class are larger than the effects on segregation by race. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

          • R Bifulco, HF Ladd and SL Ross.
          • (2009).
          • The effects of public school choice on those left behind: Evidence from Durham, North Carolina.
          • Peabody Journal of Education
          • ,
          • 84
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 130-149.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Using student-level data from Durham, North Carolina, we examine the potential impact of school choice programs on the peer environments of students who remain in their geographically assigned schools. We examine whether the likelihood of opting out of one's geographically assigned school differs across groups and compare the actual peer composition in neighborhood schools to what the peer composition in those schools would be under a counterfactual scenario in which all students attend their geographically assigned schools. We find that many advantaged students have used school choice programs in Durham to opt out of assigned schools with concentrations of disadvantaged students and to attend schools with higher achieving students. Comparisons of actual peer compositions with the counterfactual scenario indicate only small differences in peer composition for nonchoosers on average. More substantial differences in peer environment emerge, however, for students in schools with concentrations of disadvantaged students and schools located near choice schools attractive to high achievers. The results suggest that expansions of parental choice may have significant adverse effects on the peer environments of a particularly vulnerable group of students.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (2009).
          • The academic achievement gap in grades 3 to 8.
          • Review of Economics and Statistics
          • ,
          • 91
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 398-419.
          • (Also available as NBER working paper #12207)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Using data for North Carolina public school students in grades 3 to 8, we examine achievement gaps between white students and students from other racial and ethnic groups. We focus on cohorts of students who stay in the state's public schools for all six years. While the black-white gaps are sizable and robust, both Hispanic and Asian students tend to gain on whites as they progress in school. Beyond simple mean differences, we find that the racial gaps in math between low-performing students have tended to shrink as students progress through school, while those for high-performing students have generally widened. © 2009 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • School policies and the test score gap.
          Publication Description

          On average, black students in the United States achieve at lower levels than white students do. Recent evidence from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicates, for example, that in 2004 the gap between thirteen-year-old black and white students was about 0.6 standard deviation in reading and about 0.8 in math. To be sure, such gaps were far larger in the 1970s, when they exceeded a full standard deviation in both subjects. The gaps fell dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and then fell again between 1999 and 2004. These ups and downs notwithstanding, the persistence of these gaps is cause for significant policy concern for reasons discussed elsewhere in this book and in Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips (1998). This volume has drawn attention to school-related trends such as in the racial segregation of the schools and the widening disparities in teacher qualifications between black and white students, especially at the elementary level, that may have stalled the convergence of the black and white test scores in the 1990s (see Vigdor and Ludwig, chapter 5, and Corcoran and Evans, chapter 6, this volume). This chapter picks up from that analysis and asks what educational policies might be pursued moving forward to help reduce the black-white test score gap, or at least to offset some of the other trends that may tend to widen it, such as rising income and social inequality. Of particular interest for this review are school policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified-at least in part-on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. As will become apparent, not all the proposed strategies are likely to be effective in that regard and their net effect on the size of the gap is likely to be relatively small. This discussion is divided into five sets of policy strategies. The first two focus on teachers, but from quite different perspectives. One set relates to the assignment of students to schools, with attention to how racial segregation of students affects the quality of teachers for black students relative to white students. The other focuses on more direct interventions designed to improve the quality of the teachers of black students. The third set includes the nonteacher strategies of reducing class size and implementing whole school reform. The fourth and fifth sets emerge from a more systemic view of the educational challenge and are designed to change the incentives throughout the education system. Included here are both top-down accountability strategies designed to hold schools accountable for the performance of their students and bottom up strategies such as increased parental choice and competition designed either to improve schooling options for certain groups of students or to make use of market type pressures to improve educational outcomes. The main thrust of this chapter is that though none of the strategies discussed here is likely to be powerful enough to offset the powerful nonschool social forces that contribute to the racial achievement gap, school related strategies are a necessary component of any overall effort to reduce such gaps. Moreover, the failure of education policy makers to be vigilant about the aspects of the problem over which they do have some control could well lead to even greater gaps in the future or to lost opportunities to reduce them. Copyright © 2008 by Russell Sage Foundation.

          • C Clotfelter, E Glennie, H Ladd and J Vigdor.
          • (June, 2008).
          • Would higher salaries keep teachers in high-poverty schools? Evidence from a policy intervention in North Carolina.
          • Journal of Public Economics
          • ,
          • 92
          • (5-6)
          • ,
          • 1352-1370.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          For a three-year time period beginning in 2001, North Carolina awarded an annual bonus of $1800 to certified math, science and special education teachers working in public secondary schools with either high-poverty rates or low test scores. Using longitudinal data on teachers, we estimate hazard models that identify the impact of this differential pay by comparing turnover patterns before and after the program's implementation, across eligible and ineligible categories of teachers, and across eligible and barely-ineligible schools. Results suggest that this bonus payment was sufficient to reduce mean turnover rates of the targeted teachers by 17%. Experienced teachers exhibited the strongest response to the program. Finally, the effect of the program may have been at least partly undermined by the state's failure to fully educate teachers regarding the eligibility criteria. Our estimates most likely underpredict the potential outcome of a program of permanent salary differentials operating under complete information. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

          • CT Clotfelter, EJ Glennie, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (April, 2008).
          • Teacher bonuses and teacher retention in low-performing schools: Evidence from the North Carolina $1,800 teacher bonus program.
          • Public Finance Review
          • ,
          • 36
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 63-87.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Between 2001 and 2004, the state of North Carolina gave an annual salary bonus of $1,800 to certified math, science, and special education teachers in a set of low-performing and/or high-poverty secondary schools. Eligible teachers were to continue receiving the bonus as long as they continued in the school. In a survey of teachers and principals, the authors find evidence that school personnel favor the use of monetary incentives to increase the attractiveness of their workplace but were skeptical that the amount of the bonus would be sufficient to reduce the high turnover rates in their schools. Preliminary evidence on turnover rates supports this skepticism. Given that the survey evidence reveals widespread misunderstanding of the retention incentives incorporated into the program, the authors conclude that the bonus program was hampered by a series of flaws in design and implementation. © 2008 Sage Publications.

          • AB Atkinson, S Cnossen, HF Ladd, P Mieszkowski, P Pestieau and PA Samuelson.
          • (2008).
          • Commemorating Richard Musgrave (1910-2007).
          • FinanzArchiv
          • ,
          • 64
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 145-170.
          • [web]
          • J Cordes, D Conger, H Ladd and M Luger.
          • (2008).
          • Undergraduate and doctoral education in public policy: What? Why? Why not? Whereto?.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 27
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 1009-1026.
          • [web]
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (December, 2007).
          • Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects.
          • Economics of Education Review
          • ,
          • 673-682.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          We use a rich administrative dataset from North Carolina to explore questions related to the relationship between teacher characteristics and credentials on the one hand and student achievement on the other. Though the basic questions underlying this research are not new-and, indeed, have been explored in many papers over the years within the rubric of the "education production function"-the availability of data on all teachers and students in North Carolina over a 10-year period allows us to explore them in more detail than has been possible in previous studies. We conclude that a teacher's experience, test scores and regular licensure all have positive effects on student achievement, with larger effects for math than for reading. Taken together the various teacher credentials exhibit quite large effects on math achievement, whether compared to the effects of changes in class size or to the socio-economic characteristics of students.

          • R Bifulco and HF Ladd.
          • (Winter 2007).
          • School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 26
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 31-56.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative effects of charter schools on the achievement of black students is driven by students who transfer into charter schools that are more racially isolated than the schools they have left. Our analysis of charter school choices suggests that asymmetric preferences of black and white charter school students (and their families) for schools of different racial compositions help to explain why there are so few racially balanced charter schools. © 2006 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2007).
          • Teacher labor markets in developed countries.
          • Future of Children
          • ,
          • 17
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 201-217.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries - an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification, working conditions, the challenges facing new teachers, and the distribution of teachers across geographic areas.

          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and JL Vigdor.
          • (Fall 2006).
          • Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness.
          • Journal of Human Resources
          • ,
          • 41
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 778-820.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Administrative data on fifth grade students in North Carolina shows that more highly qualified teachers tend to be matched with more advantaged students, both across schools and in many cases within them. This matching biases estimates of the relationship between teacher characteristics and achievement; we isolate this bias in part by focusing on schools where students are distributed relatively evenly across classrooms. Teacher experience is consistently associated with achievement; teacher licensure test scores associate with math achievement. These returns display a form of heterogeneity across students that may help explain why the observed form of teacher-student matching persists in equilibrium. © 2006 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

          • CT Clotfelter, JL Vigdor and HF Ladd.
          • (Summer 2006).
          • Federal oversight, local control, and the specter of "resegregation" in Southern schools.
          • American Law and Economics Review
          • ,
          • 8
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 347-389.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Analyzing data for the 100 largest districts in the South and Border states, we ask whether there is evidence of "resegregation" of school districts and whether levels of segregation can be linked to judicial decisions. We distinguish segregation measures based on racial isolation from those based on racial imbalance. Only one measure of racial isolation suggests that districts in these regions experienced resegregation between 1994 and 2004, and changes in this measure appear to be driven largely by the rising nonwhite percentage in the student population rather than by district policies. Although we find no time trend in racial imbalance over this period, we find that variations in racial imbalance across districts are nonetheless associated with judicial declarations of unitary status, suggesting that segregation in schools might have declined had it not been for the actions of federal courts. © 2006 Oxford University Press.

          • E Fiske and H Ladd.
          • (June 2006).
          • Racial equity in education: How far has South Africa come?.
          • Perspectives in Education
          • Jonathan Jansen (Eds.),
          • ,
          • Special Issue on Education Finance
          • ,
          • 24
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 95-108.
          Publication Description

          A major task of South Africa's new government in 1994 was to design a more racially equitable education system. This article evaluates progress towards this goal using three concepts of equity: equal treatment by race, equal educational opportunity, and educational adequacy. The authors find that the country moved quickly towards a race-blind system, including race-blind policies for allocating state funds to schools. Progress measured by the other two criteria, however, has been constrained by the legacy of apartheid, including poor facilities and lack of human capacity in schools serving black students, and by policies concerning school fees. The article concludes with some thoughts on the future outlook.

          • R Bifulco and HF Ladd.
          • (2006).
          • The Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement: Evidence from North Carolina.
          • Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • 1
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 50-90.
          • [web]
          • R Bifulco and HF Ladd.
          • (October 2006).
          • Institutional change and coproduction of public services: The effect of charter schools on parental involvement.
          • Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory
          • ,
          • 16
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 553-576.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Recent discussions of school choice have revived arguments that the decentralization of governing institutions can enhance the quality of public services by increasing the participation of intended beneficiaries in the production of those services. We use data from the Schools and Staffing Survey to examine the extent to which the decentralization of authority to charter schools induces parents to become more involved in their children's schools. We find that parents are indeed more involved in charter schools than in observationally similar public schools, especially in urban elementary and middle schools. Although we find that this difference is partly attributable to measurable institutional and organizational factors, we also find that charter schools tend to be established in areas with above-average proportions of involved parents, and we find suggestive evidence that, within those areas, it is the more involved parents who tend to select into charter schools. Thus, while the institutional characteristics of charter schools do appear to induce parents to become more involved in their children's schools, such characteristics are only part of the explanation for the greater parental involvement in charter schools than in traditional public schools. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2005).
          • Obedient servants? Management freedoms and accountabilities in the New Zealand public sector.
          • JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT
          • ,
          • 24
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 193-196.
          • [web]
          • R Bifulco and HF Ladd.
          • (2005).
          • Results from the tar heel state.
          • Education Next
          • ,
          • 5
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 60-66.
          • [web]
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd and J Vigdor.
          • (2005).
          • Who teaches whom? Race and the distribution of novice teachers.
          • Economics of Education Review
          • ,
          • 24
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 377-392.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This paper focuses on one potentially important contributor to the achievement gap between black and white students, differences in their exposure to novice teachers. We present a model that explores the pressures that may lead school administrators to distribute novice teachers unequally across or within schools. Using a rich micro-level data set provided by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, we find that novice teachers are distributed among schools and among classrooms within schools in a way that disadvantages black students. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2004).
          • Comment: The partially subsidized muse: Estimating the value and incidence of public support received by nonprofit arts organizations.
          • City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer
          • ,
          • 241-243.
          • [web]
          • CT Clotfelter, HF Ladd, JL Vigdor and RA Diaz.
          • (2004).
          • Do School Accountability Systems Make It More Difficult for Low-Performing Schools to Attract and Retain High-Quality Teachers?.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 23
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 251-271.
          • (Winner of Raymond Vernon Prize for the best article in volume 23)
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Administrative data from North Carolina are used to explore the extent to which that state's relatively sophisticated school-based accountability system has exacerbated the challenges that schools serving low-performing students face in retaining and attracting high-quality teachers. Most clear are the adverse effects on retention rates, and hence on teacher turnover, in such schools. Less clear is the extent to which that higher turnover has translated into a decline in the average qualifications of the teachers in the low-performing schools. Other states with more primitive accountability systems can expect even greater adverse effects on teacher turnover in low-performing schools. © 2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • HF Ladd and EB Fiske.
          • (Spring 2003).
          • Does competition improve teaching and learning? Evidence from New Zealand.
          • Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
          • ,
          • 25
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 97-112.
          Publication Description

          Central to the argument for more competition in education is that it will induce schools to provide higher quality education at no greater cost. This article sheds new light on this issue by measuring how competition among New Zealand's schools affected student learning as perceived by teachers and principals. The analysis builds on the fact that New Zealand's introduction of full parental choice in 1992 increased competitive pressures more for some schools than for others. With careful attention to various potential threats to validity, we conclude that competition - as perceived by teachers generated negative effects on the quality of student learning and other aspects of schooling in New Zealand's elementary schools.

          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (Fall 2002).
          • School Vouchers: A Critical View.
          • Journal of Economic Perspectives
          • ,
          • 16
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 3-24.
          • (Invited paper)
          • [pdf]
          • HF Ladd and A Zelli.
          • (October 2002).
          • School-based accountability in North Carolina: The responses of school principals.
          • Educational Administration Quarterly
          • ,
          • 38
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 494-529.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Surprisingly little is known about the impact of school-based accountability systems, which are one component of the larger standards-based reform effort in education. Using two waves of survey data from a random sample of school principals in North Carolina, the authors investigate the reported behavioral responses of principals to that state's highly touted accountability system. Their analysis indicates that the state's ABCs program is a powerful tool for changing the behavior of school principals in both intended and unintended ways. Because of its power, the authors conclude that policy makers should use such a tool cautiously.

          • HF Ladd and EB Fiske.
          • (Winter 2001).
          • The uneven playing field of school choice: Evidence from New Zealand.
          • Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
          • ,
          • 20
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 43-64.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          New Zealand's 10-year experience with self-governing schools operating in a competitive environment provides new insights into school choice initiatives now being hotly debated in the United States with limited evidence. This article examines how New Zealand's system of parental choice of schools played out in that country's three major urban areas with particular emphasis on the sorting of students by ethnic and socioeconomic status. The analysis documents that schools with large initial proportions of minorities (Maori and Pacific Island students in the New Zealand context) were at a clear disadvantage in the educational market place relative to other schools and that the effect was to generate a system in which gaps between the "successful" and the "unsuccessful" schools became wider. © 2001 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

          • HF Ladd and SE Murray.
          • (2001).
          • Intergenerational conflict reconsidered: County demographic structure and the demand for public education.
          • Economics of Education Review
          • ,
          • 20
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 343-357.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The observation that the elderly may be less willing to support K-12 education than other voters raises the specter of decreasing support for schools as the US population ages. In this article, we examine that support using a national panel of counties over time. Building on earlier models estimated for state level data, we conclude that the direct differential effect within each county of the presence of elderly households is not distinguishable from zero but that the elderly have the potential to affect spending on education indirectly through where they live. To the extent that the elderly live in counties with low proportions of children, the tax price of education in other counties is higher which could in turn reduce financial support for education in those counties. Thus one cannot predict the impact of an increasing share of the elderly on education spending without paying attention to how the elderly are likely to be distributed among counties relative to children. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2001).
          • School-based educational accountability systems: The promise and the pitfalls.
          • National Tax Journal
          • ,
          • 54
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 385-400.
          • HF Ladd and J Ludwig.
          • (1999).
          • MTO: A residential relocation demonstration program in the United States.
          • Journal of Housing and the Built Environment
          • ,
          • 14
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 61-79.
          Publication Description

          This article provides an overview of an experimental residential relocation program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development known as Moving to Opportunity (MTO), currently in operation in five U.S. cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. Because families are randomly assigned to three groups, each of which receives a different bundle of housing services, MTO provides a unique opportunity to learn more about the effects of concentrated urban poverty on the outcomes of families. Yet residential relocation can be an effective anti-poverty strategy only if families successfully relocate and if their new neighborhoods translate into improved labor-market, educational, or other outcomes. We illustrate the potential as well as the limits of residential relocation policies by focusing on the relationship between the housing market and educational opportunities in the Baltimore demonstration site.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (1999).
          • The Dallas school accountability and incentive program: An evaluation of its impacts on student outcomes.
          • Economics of Education Review
          • ,
          • 18
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-16.
          Publication Description

          Consistent with the current emphasis on performance-based accountability in K-12 education, several states and a few local districts have introduced school-based incentive programs. This paper provides one of the few evaluations of the effects of such programs on student outcomes. Using a panel data set for schools in large Texas cities, it measures the gains in student performance in Dallas relative to those in other cities. It finds positive and relatively large effects for Hispanic and white seventh graders, but not for black students. Potentially positive effects also emerge for drop-out rates and principal turnover rates.[JEL I20].

          • HF Ladd.
          • (May, 1998).
          • Evidence on Discrimination in Mortgage Lending.
          • Journal of Economic Perspectives
          • ,
          • 12
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 41-62.
          • HF Ladd and J Ludwig.
          • (May, 1997).
          • Federal Housing Assistance, Residential Relocation, and Educational Opportunities: Evidence from Baltimore.
          • American Economic Review
          • ,
          • 87
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 272-277.
          • JT Hamilton.
          • (Summer, 1996).
          • Biased ballots? the impact of ballot structure on North Carolina elections in 1992.
          • Public Choice
          • ,
          • 87
          • (3-4)
          • ,
          • 259-280.
          Publication Description

          North Carolina state election law gives county election boards broad authority to determine the form of the ballot used in federal, state, and local races. This paper examines the extent to which ballot formats appear to be strategically chosen and the impact of ballot design on 1992 North Carolina elections. Our results indicate that the form of the ballot influenced the decisions of some voters in statewide races in 1992 and that the design of the ballot may have been chosen strategically by county election boards dominated by the members of one party. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

          • HF Ladd.
          • (1996).
          • The price of federalism - Peterson,PE.
          • JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT
          • ,
          • 15
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 469-472.
          • [web]
          • H LADD and J YINGER.
          • (1994).
          • THE CASE FOR EQUALIZING AID.
          • NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL
          • ,
          • 47
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 211-224.
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (1994).
          • Fiscal impacts of local population growth: A conceptual and empirical analysis.
          • Regional Science and Urban Economics
          • ,
          • 24
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 661-686.
          Publication Description

          This paper examines the legitimacy of concerns of local residents about the adverse fiscal impacts of population growth. The conceptual discussion shows that economic theory provides no clear prediction of the impact of population growth on per capita spending. Based on a national data set of large countries, simple d descriptive analysis indicates that greater population growth is associated with higher per capita current spending and interest outlays. More detailed analysis both of 1978-1985 changes and of 1985 levels of current spending indicates that higher growth-related per capita spending primarily reflects the combined effects of greater density and increased local spending shares. In sum, established residents in fast- growing areas may experience declines in service quality as well as rising local tax burdens. © 1994.

          • H LADD.
          • (1993).
          • MAYORS AND MONEY - FISCAL-POLICY IN NEW-YORK AND CHICAGO - FUCHS,ER.
          • JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT
          • ,
          • 12
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 608-611.
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd with Andrew Reschovsky and John Yinger.
          • (1992).
          • City Fiscal Condition and State Equalizing Aid: the Case of Minnesota.
          • Proceedings of the Eighty-Fourth Annual Conference of the National Tax Association - Tax Institute of American (Columbus, Ohio)
          • ,
          • 42-49.
          • HF Ladd.
          • (1992).
          • Population growth, density and the costs of providing public services.
          • Urban Studies
          • ,
          • 29
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 273-295.
          Publication Description

          Recent policy interest in managing local population growth has drawn attention to the fiscal pressures that population growth imposes on local governments. This paper uses 1985 data for 247 large county areas to determine the separate impacts on local government spending of two dimensions of residential development patterns, the rapidity of population growth and the intensity of land use as measured by gross residential densities. Based on a regression model that controls for other determinants of per capita spending, this study provides careful estimates of the nonlinear impacts of population growth and population density on three types of local government spending: current account spending, capital outlays and spending on public safety. -from Author

          • H LADD.
          • (1991).
          • THE STATE AID DECISION - CHANGES IN STATE AID TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, 1982-87.
          • NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL
          • ,
          • 44
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 477-496.
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd and W Wheaton.
          • (July, 1991).
          • Causes and consequences of the changing urban form. Introduction.
          • Regional Science and Urban Economics
          • ,
          • 21
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 157-162.
          • (Special issue edited by Helen F. Ladd and William Wheaton)
          • [web]
          • HF Ladd.
          • (1991).
          • Property tax revaluation and tax levy growth revisited.
          • Journal of Urban Economics
          • ,
          • 30
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 83-99.
          • J YINGER and H LADD.
          • (1989).
          • THE DETERMINANTS OF STATE ASSISTANCE TO CENTRAL CITIES.
          • NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL
          • ,
          • 42
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 413-428.
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd with John Yinger.
          • (October, 1989).
          • Recent Trends in City Fiscal Health.
          • National Tax Associaiton - Tax Institute of America, Proceedings of the Eighty Second Annual Conference on Taxation, Atlanta, Georgia
          • .
          • HS Bloom and HF Ladd.
          • (Winter, 1982).
          • Property tax revaluation and tax levy growth.
          • Journal of Urban Economics
          • ,
          • 11
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 73-84.
          Publication Description

          Jurisdiction-wide property revaluation, like many administrative reforms, may have unintended consequences. This paper examines one such potential consequence. By pooling 18-year time series for each of 39 Massachusetts cities (17 of which revalued) and 270 Massachusetts towns (202 of which revalued), we examine the hypothesis that politicians take advantage of the confusion generated by revaluation and raise property taxes by more than they otherwise would have. We observe such a response in cities but not in towns and attribute this difference to differences in their governmental structures. © 1982.

          • H.F. Ladd with Katherine L. Bradbury and Claire Christopherson.
          • (March/April 1982).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts, Part II.
          • New England Economic Review
          • .
          • (Part I and II also in Proposition 2 1/2: Its Impact on Massachusetts (Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, 1983)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (1979).
          • Municipal expenditure and the rate of population change (revised version) ( USA)..
          • Harvard University, Department of City and Regional Planning, Urban Planning Policy Analysis & Administration, Discussion Paper
          • .
          Publication Description

          The recent decline of many industrial cities in the NE and the rapid growth of cites in the SW have forcefully drawn attention to the fiscal implications of population change. Although the major urban areas receive most of the attention, other smaller cities confront many of the same issues. This paper focuses on these smaller cities with the specific purpose of determining the impact of population change on per capita local public expenditures.-from Author

      • Chapters in Books

          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • Confessions of a Wellesley FEM.
          • Michael Svenberg and Lall Ramrrattan (eds), Eminent Economists II: Their Life and Work Philosophies
          • Cambridge University Press.
          • (Forthcoming January 2014)
          • H.F. Ladd, Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (2014).
          • Racial and Economic Imbalance in Charlotte's Schools, 1994-2012.
          • R.A. Mickelson, S.S. Smith and A.H. Nelson (eds), Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. The Past, Present, and Future of School (De)Segregation in Charlotte
          • Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
          • (Forthcoming)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2014).
          • Education Equity in an International Context.
          • Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy
          • New York and London: Routledge Press.
          • (Updated version of chapter 16 to be included in the revised edition of Helen F. Ladd and Margaret Goertz (eds)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (2013).
          • Confessions of a wellesley FEM.
          • Eminent Economists II: Their Life and Work Philosophies
          • ,
          • (pp. 249-269).
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          © Cambridge University Press 2013. I enrolled in my first economics course in 1963, my freshman year at Wellesley College, which was then, and still is, only for women. On the first day of class, my thirty freshman classmates and I eagerly awaited the arrival of our teacher. When she entered the classroom, she immediately announced that, as the chair of the department, she got to choose which section to teach, and she chose ours. Her intent was to share with us her excitement about the field and to send a signal that economics was very much an appropriate field for women. The teacher was Carolyn Shaw Bell, who later founded the American Economic Association’s Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession. That first course inspired me to join the ranks of Wellesley FEMs – her term for female economics majors. Little did I understand at the time the intellectual opportunities that were then opening up for me. My Life History I was raised as a provincial New Englander. My parents, all my grandparents, and many of my great-grandparents lived in New England, with most of them spending much of their lives in the Boston area. The men in the family all went to Harvard College, and my mother and two of my aunts went to Wellesley College in a Boston suburb. It was clear to me that Boston was the center of the universe, and for men a Harvard degree was the key to a successful life. When I was ready for college, the choice was obvious. I applied early decision to Wellesley, without considering any other place. Later when I was ready for graduate school, I applied only to Harvard.

          • H.F. Ladd and Susanna Loeb.
          • (2013).
          • The Challenges of Measuring School quality: Implications for Educational Equity.
          • In D. Allen and R. Reich, eds., Education, Democracy and Justice
          • ,
          • 19-42.
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2012).
          • Confessions of Wellesley FEM.
          • .
          • (Invited autobiographical essay, forthcoming in Eminent Economists II (Cambridge University Press)
          • H.F. Ladd, Edward B. Fiske and Nienke Ruijs.
          • (2011).
          • Does Parental Choice Foster Segregated Schools: Insights from the Netherlands.
          • In M Berends, M. Cannata, and E.B. Goldring, eds. School Choice and School Improvement.
          • ,
          • 233-254.
          • Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press..
          • H.F. Ladd, Edward B. Fiske, Nienke Ruijs.
          • (October, 2009.).
          • Insights from the Netherlands: Growing Concerns about Segregation.
          • .
          • (Paper presented at the National Conference on School Choice, Vanderbilt University - Forthcoming in conference volume)
          • H.F. Ladd with E.B. Fiske.
          • (2008).
          • Education Equity in an International Context.
          • In H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Research on Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • (pp. 276-292).
          • Routledge.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (Forthcoming).
          • Teacher Effects: What Do We Know?.
          • Web based publication
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap.
          • Katherine Magnuson and Jane Waldfogel, eds. Steady Gains and Stalled Progress: Inequality and the Black-White Test Score Gap.
          • ,
          • (pp. 289-319).
          • H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske eds..
          • (2008).
          • "Introduction".
          • Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy
          • H. F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske eds. (Eds.),
          • ,
          • xvii - xxii.
          • Routledge.
          • H.F. Ladd with David Figlio.
          • (2008).
          • School Accountability and Student Achievement.
          • In H. F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske eds. (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy
          • ,
          • (pp. 166-182).
          • Routledge.
          • Robert Bifulco and Helen F. Ladd, M. Berends, M Springer and H. Walberg, eds.
          • (2007).
          • "Charter Schools in North Carolina" In Charter School Outcomes.
          • New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
          • ,
          • 195-220.
          • H.F. Ladd with Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz.
          • (2006).
          • Education and Economic Development.
          • In Susan Collins, Barry Bosworth and Miguel Soto-Class (Eds.),
          • The Economy of Puerto Rico: Restoring Growth
          • ,
          • (pp. 189-238).
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          • H.F. Ladd, with C.T. Clotfelter, and J. Vigdor.
          • (2005).
          • Classroom-Level Segregation and Resegregation in North Carolina.
          • In John Charles Boger and Gary Orfield (Eds.),
          • School Resegregation: Must the South Turn Back?
          • Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward B. Fiske.
          • (2004).
          • "Balancing Public and Private Resources for Basic Education: School Fees in Post-Apartheid South Africa".
          • In Linda Chisholm. (Eds.),
          • Changing Class: Education and Social Change in Post-Apartheid South Africa
          • Cape Town: HSRC Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward B. Fiske.
          • (2003).
          • School Choice in New Zealand: A Cautionary Tale.
          • In David Plank and Gary Sykes (Eds.),
          • Choosing Choice: Global Trends and National Variations
          • Teacher's College Press.
          • H.F. Ladd and Jens Ludwig.
          • (2003).
          • The Effects of MTO on Educational Opportunities in Baltimore" chapter 5.
          • In John Goering and Judith D. Feins (Eds.),
          • Choosing a Better Life: Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity Social Experiment
          • ,
          • (pp. 117-152).
          • Urban Institute Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Jens Ludwig and Greg Duncan.
          • (2003).
          • The Effects of MTO on Children and Parents in Baltimore" chapter 6.
          • In John Goering and Judith D. Feins (Eds.),
          • Choosing a Better Life: Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity Social Experiment
          • ,
          • (pp. 153-176).
          • Urban Institute Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2003).
          • Introduction.
          • In David Plank and Gary Sykes (Eds.),
          • Choosing Choice: Global Trends and National Variations
          • Teacher's College Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward B. Fiske.
          • (2001).
          • The U.S. Charter School Movement: Lessons from New Zealand's Experience with Self-Governing Schools and Parental Choice.
          • In Paul Peterson and David Campbell (Eds.),
          • Charters, Vouchers & Public Education
          • ,
          • (pp. 59-79).
          • Brookings Institution Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter.
          • (1996).
          • Recognizing the Rewarding Success in Public Schools.
          • In Helen F. Ladd (Eds.),
          • Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education
          • The Brookings Institution.
          • H.F. Ladd with Ronald Ferguson.
          • (1996).
          • Additional Evidence on How and Why Money Matters: A Production Function Analysis of Alabama Schools.
          • In Helen F. Ladd (Eds.),
          • Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education
          • The Brookings Institution.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1994).
          • Big City Finances.
          • Big City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal Constraints
          • ,
          • (pp. 201-269).
          • Urban Institute Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1994).
          • Measuring Disparities in the Fiscal Condition of Local Governments.
          • In John Anderson (Eds.),
          • The Challenge of Fiscal Equalization
          • ,
          • (pp. 21-55).
          • Praeger Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1994).
          • Comments on Wallace E. Oates, "Federalism and Government Finance.
          • In J. Quigley and E. Smolensky (Eds.),
          • Modern Public Finance
          • Harvard University Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1993).
          • Fiscal Consequences for U.S. Central Cities of the Changing Urban Form.
          • In Anita Summers and Lanfranco Senn (Eds.),
          • Urban Change in the U.S. and Western Europe: Comparative Analysis and Policy
          • ,
          • (pp. 321-370).
          • Urban Institute Press.
          • (Slightly updated for second edition, 1999)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1993).
          • Effects of Population Growth on Local Spending and Taxes.
          • In R.D. Norton (Eds.),
          • Structuring Direct Aid: People Versus Places
          • ,
          • (pp. 181-224).
          • JAI Press, Research in Urban Economics, vol. 9.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1993).
          • Comments on John M. Quigley and Daniel L. Rubinfeld, 'Public Choices in Public Higher Education'.
          • In Charles Clotfelter and Michael Rothchild (Eds.),
          • Studies of Supply and Demand in Higher Education
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1991).
          • Sales Taxes in Arizona.
          • In Therese J. McGuire and Dana Wolfe Naimark (Eds.),
          • State and local Finance for the 1990s: A Case Study of Arizona
          • University of Arizona Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1990).
          • Big City Finances in the New Era of Fiscal Federalism.
          • In Thomas R. Swartz and John E. Peck (Eds.),
          • The Changing Face of Fiscal Federalism
          • ,
          • (pp. 127-151).
          • London, England: M.E. Sharpe, Inc..
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1990).
          • User Charges -- Not Just Another Revenue Source.
          • In Thomas D. Hopkins (Eds.),
          • The Role of User Charges
          • ,
          • (pp. 47-55).
          • Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1989).
          • The Meaning of Balance for State-Local Tax Systems.
          • In Steven D. Gold (Eds.),
          • The Unfinished Agenda for State Tax Reform
          • National Conference of State Legislatures.
          • H.F. Ladd with Ronald Ferguson.
          • (1988).
          • State Economic Renaissance, "Pioneering State Economic Strategy," and "Creating the Future.
          • In R. Scott Fosler (Eds.),
          • The New Economic Role of American States: Strategies and Institutions for a Competitive World Economy
          • Oxford University Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1988).
          • Comments on Charles R. Hulton and Robert M. Schwab, "Incoming Originating in The State and Local Sector.
          • In Harvey Rosen (Eds.),
          • Fiscal Federalism
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Dana R. Weist.
          • (1987).
          • State and local Tax Systems: Balance Among Taxes vs. Balance Among Policy Goals.
          • In Frederick D. Stocker (Eds.),
          • The Quest for Balance in State-Local Revenue Systems
          • Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
          • H.F. Ladd with Ronald Ferguson.
          • (1986).
          • Measuring the Fiscal Capacity of U.S. Cities.
          • In Clyde Reeves (Eds.),
          • Measuring Fiscal Capacity
          • Oelgeschlager, Gunn, and Hain, Inc..
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1986).
          • Comments on Steven G. Craig and Robert P. Inman, "Education, Welfare, and the 'New Federalism': State Budgeting in a Federalist Public Economy.
          • In Harvey Rosen (Eds.),
          • Studies in State and Local Public Finance
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (February, 1985).
          • The Massachusetts Experience.
          • In Peggy B. Musgrave (Eds.),
          • States Under Stress: A Report on the Finances of Massachusetts, Michigan, Texas, and California
          • Berkeley, CA: Institute of Governmental Studies.
          • (paper presented at the conference on the Present Condition and Future Prospects of State-Local Finances, University of California, Santa Cruz, April 1983)
          • H.F. Ladd with Julie Boatright Wilson.
          • (1985).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Explaining the Vote.
          • In T. Clark (Eds.),
          • Research in Urban Policy
          • ,
          • 1
          • JAI Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1984).
          • Federal Aid to State and Local Governments.
          • In J. Palmer and G. Mills (Eds.),
          • Federal Budget Policy in the 1980's
          • Urban Institute Press.
          • H.F. Ladd with Herman Leonard.
          • (1984).
          • Taxation and the Poor.
          • In Manuel Carballo and Mary Jo Bane (Eds.),
          • The State and the Poor in the 1980's
          • Auburn House.
          • H.F. Ladd with Howard Bloom and John Yinger.
          • (1983).
          • Are Property Taxes Capitalized into House Values?.
          • In George R. Zodrow (Eds.),
          • Local Provision of Public Services: The Tiebout Model After Twenty-Five Years
          • Academic Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1982).
          • Financing Services in the Federal System.
          • Federalism: Making the System Work: Alternatives for the 1980's
          • Center for National Policy, Washington, D.C..
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1980).
          • Municipal Expenditures and the Rate of Population Change.
          • In R.W. Burchell and D. Listokin (Eds.),
          • Cities Under Stress: The Fiscal Crisis of Urban America
          • New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1980).
          • Tax Policy Considerations Underlying Preferential Tax Treatment of Open Space and Agricultural Land.
          • In N.A. Roberts and H.J. Brown (Eds.),
          • Property Tax Preferences for Agricultural Land
          • Montclair: NJ: Allanheld, Osman & Co, Inc..
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1979).
          • Discussion of Howard A. Chernick, "An Economic Model of the Distribution of Project Grants.
          • In P. Miezkowski and W. Oakland (Eds.),
          • Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-Aid, COUPE Papers on Public Economics
          • Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (March, 1977).
          • Male-Female Differences in Pre-College Economic.
          • In Donald R. Wentworth, W. Lee Hansen, and Sharryl H. Hawke (Eds.),
          • Perspectives on Economic Education
          • Joint Council on Economic Education.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1976).
          • Municipal Expenditures and the Composition of the Property Tax Base.
          • In Arthur D. Lynn (Eds.),
          • Property Taxation, Land Use and Public Trends (TRED8)
          • Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
          • (Paper presented at Taxation, Resources, and Economic Development Conference, October 1973)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1973).
          • The Role of the Property Tax: A Reassessment.
          • In R.A. Musgrave (Eds.),
          • Board Based Taxes: New Options and Sources
          • John Hopkins University Press.
          • (A supplementary paper of the Committee for Economic Development. Reprinted in Oliver Oldman and Ferdinand P. Schoettle, State and Local Taxes and Finance: Text, Problems and Cases (Mineola, NY: The Foundation Press, Inc., 1974), pp. 348-386)
      • Op-eds

          • C Clotfelter, Ladd, Helen and Vigdor, Jacob.
          • (2013).
          • Surprising Success Among Hispanic students.
          • Duke Today.
          • [web]
      • Other

          • H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske.
          • (December 12, 2011).
          • Class Matters. Why Won't We Admit It?.
          • ,
          • New York Times Opinion Pages
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (March 16, 2011).
          • Press release on early childhood programs in North Carolina.
          • ,
          • (with follow up op eds. in several NC papers)
          • .
          • (Press release on early childhood programs in North Carolina)
          • H.F. Ladd, Edward B. Fiske, Nienke Ruijs.
          • (18-20 February 2010).
          • Migrant Education in the Netherlands: Segregation and the Role of Weighted Student Funding.
          • .
          • (Paper presented at the conference on "Migration, A World in Motion: A Multinational Conference on Migration and Migration Policy," in Masstricht, The Netherlands)
          • H.F. Ladd, Sara Pilzer.
          • (March 18-20, 2010).
          • Using Survey Data to Measure the Quality of School Principals.
          • .
          • (Paper prepared for the American Education Association Meetings, Richmond Virginia. Revised version to be presented at APPAM in November, 2010)
          • H.F. Ladd with Charles T. Clotfelter, and Jacob L. Vigdor.
          • (2008).
          • Teacher Quality and Public Policy.
          • .
          • (Final report to the Spencer Foundation for research grant.)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • Commentary on paper by Thomas Nechyba.
          • .
          • (Lincoln Institute volume on Fiscal Decentralization (forthcoming).)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2007).
          • Policy as Resource Allocation: Commentary.
          • .
          • (The State of Education Policy Research (D.K. Cohen, S.H.Fuhrman, and Fritz Mosher eds.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007, pp. 179-186.)
          • H.F. Ladd with David Figlio.
          • (2006).
          • Effects of Accountability on Student Achievement.
          • .
          • (Paper prepared for the US Department of Education, Section 1503 evaluation of No Child Left Behind and for a volume to be published by the Urban Institute)
          • H.F. Ladd with Robert Bifulco.
          • (2006).
          • Charter Schools in North Carolina.
          • National Center on School Choice
          • ,
          • Conference
          • Vanderbuilt University.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (mid March 2005).
          • Learning from South Africa.
          • Commentary in Ed Week
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (2005).
          • Two op-eds published in South African newspapers related to our book on South Africa.
          • .
          • (One addresses school fees in South Africa and appeared in the Cape Times in mid May 2005. The other was on measuring achievement and appeared in the Mail and Guardian Supplement, August 19, 2005)
          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (October, 2004).
          • Teacher Quality and Minority Achievement Gaps.
          • .
          • (Paper based on final report to the Spencer Foundation.)
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd with Robert Bifulco.
          • (Fall, 2004).
          • Two op-eds on charter schools.
          • .
          • (one focused on NC in the Raleigh News and Observer and the other with a national focus in the Saint Paul Pioneer Press, fall 2004)
          • H.F. Ladd with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor.
          • (submitted June 2004).
          • Teacher Quality and Minority Achievement Gaps.
          • .
          • (Paper presented for the fall, 2004 APPAM meetings, based on the final report to the Spencer Foundation)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2003).
          • Policy memo on School Vouchers - Child and Family Policy Center.
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (October, 2001).
          • Report on Tax and Fiscal Aspects of Territorial Development in the Helsinki Region.
          • .
          • (Prepared for the OECD Territorial Review of the Greater Helsinki Region)
          • H.F. Ladd wit Edward Fiske.
          • (April, 2001).
          • Does Competition Improve Teaching and Learning: Evidence from New Zealand.
          • .
          • (Paper presented at the AERA meeting. Sanford Institute working paper and revised version published in Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2001).
          • Market-Based Reforms in Education.
          • .
          • (commissioned by the Urban Seminar on Creating Change in Urban Education as part of the Joblessness and Urban Poverty Research Program at Harvard University, directed by William Julius Wilson. (Revised version published as a book by the Economic Policy Institute)
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward B. Fiske.
          • (September 25, 2000).
          • Limits of Vouchers Exposed.
          • Philadelphia Inquirer
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward B. Fiske.
          • (October 18, 2000).
          • Vouchers Have Been Tried - and Failed.
          • Los Angeles Times
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with James Hamilton.
          • (November 11, 2000).
          • Cause for Confusion and N.C.'s Own Ballot.
          • The News and Observer
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (May 17, 2000).
          • A Distant Laboratory: Learning Cautionary Lessons from New Zealand's Schools.
          • Education Week
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (May 22, 2000).
          • The Invisible Hand as Schoolmaster.
          • The America Prospect
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (August 6, 2000).
          • A Cautionary Tale from New Zealand.
          • The New York Times (Education Life Section)
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (January, 1998).
          • School-Based Accountability and Incentive Programs.
          • .
          • (Paper commissioned by the National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Education Finance)
          • HF Ladd.
          • (1996).
          • The public sector - Commentary.
          • NATIONAL URBAN POLICY
          • ,
          • 136-142.
          • [web]
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (Fall, 1992).
          • Local Tax and Land Use Policy: A Survey.
          • .
          • (prepared for the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (August, 1992).
          • Land and Tax Policy.
          • .
          • (Paper preparred for the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA (Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Working Paper)
          • H.F. Ladd with Andrew Reschovsky, Daniel Salomone, and John Yinger.
          • (October, 1991).
          • Policy Analysis and the Design of State Aid Formuas: A Case Study of Minnesota.
          • .
          • (Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association of Policy Analysis and Management, Bethesda, Maryland)
          • H.F. Ladd with Andrew Reschovsky and John Yinger.
          • (April, 1991).
          • Measuring the Fiscal Condition of Cities in Minnesota.
          • .
          • (Final report submitted to the Legislative Commission on Planning and Fiscal Policy)
          • H.F. Ladd with J. Tomas Hexner, Glenn Jenkins, and K. Russell LaMotte.
          • (September, 1990).
          • Puerto Rican Statehood: A Precondition to Sound Economic Growth.
          • .
          • (Report sponsored by an independent citizen's group in Puerto Rico. (Hex Inc., Cambridge, MA). Second edition, February 1993)
          • H.F. Ladd with Dana R. Weist.
          • (August, 1989).
          • Sales Taxes and User Charges in Arizona Local Governments'.
          • .
          • (Research Paper Presented for the Arizona Joint Select Committee on State Revenues and Expenditures. (Chapter 20 in Final Report, 1989)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (June, 1989).
          • Big City Finances.
          • .
          • (prepared for the Taubman Center for State and Local Government and financed by the Ford Foundation)
          • H.F. Ladd with Dana R. Weist.
          • (April, 1989).
          • The Arizona General Sales Tax.
          • .
          • (Research Paper Presented for the Arizona Joint Select Committee on State Revenues and Expenditures. (Chapter 9 in Final Report, 1989)
          • H.F. Ladd with Claire Christopherson.
          • (1989).
          • Demand for Local Public Services: Evidence from Survey Data.
          • .
          • (financed by the National Science Foundation)
          • H.F. Ladd with Ronald F. Ferguson.
          • (1986).
          • Economic Performance and Economic Development Policy in Massachusetts.
          • .
          • (final report for the Committee for Economic Development. Available as John F. Kennedy School of Government, State, Local, and Intergovernmental Center, Discussion Paper D86-2)
          • H.F. Ladd with John Yinger and others.
          • (1986).
          • The Changing Economic and Fiscal Condition of Cities.
          • .
          • (Final Report to Department of Housing and Urban Development (462 pages)
          • H.F. Ladd with Katherine L. Bradbury and Andrew Reschovsky.
          • (October, 1983).
          • Policy Analysis and the Distribution of State Aid to Local Governments: A Case Study of Massachusetts.
          • .
          • (paper prepared for the 1983 APPAM Research Conference, Philadelphia, PA)
          • H.F. Ladd with Arnold Howitt and Herman Leonard.
          • (October, 1983).
          • Services from Public Capital: The Outlook for Boston's Physical Infrastructure.
          • .
          • (MIT-Harvard Joint Center Working Paper)
          • H.F. Ladd (with others).
          • (September, 1983).
          • State Aid Distribution Formulas: The Need for More Equalization.
          • Impact 2 1/2 Newsletter
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd with others.
          • (September, 1983).
          • State Aid and the High Cost of Local Public Services in Some Communities: The Need for More Equalization.
          • .
          • (MIT-Harvard Joint Center Working Paper, W83- 10)
          • H.F. Ladd with Robert Schafer.
          • (February, 1983).
          • Discrimination in Mortgage Lending: A Microeconomic Model of Mortgage Terms.
          • .
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1983).
          • Financing Services in the Federal System.
          • .
          • (prepared for a Bunting Institute Colloquium (November 1982), Bunting Institute Working Paper)
          • H.F. Ladd with Julie Boatright Wilson.
          • (April, 1982).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Variations in Individual Preferences and Expectations Across Communities.
          • .
          • (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Discussion Paper D82-1)
          • H.F. Ladd with Katherine L. Bradbury and Claire Christopherson.
          • (1982).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts.
          • .
          • (Policy Paper of the Institute of Research on Educational Finance and Governance, Stanford University, 1982. Also available as a working paper of the Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard, 1982)
          • H.F. Ladd with Julie Boatright Wilson.
          • (1982).
          • Tax Limitation Study.
          • .
          • (Final Report to National Institute of Education)
          • H.F. Ladd with Julie Boatright Wilson.
          • (April, 1981).
          • Proposition 2 1/2: Explaining the Vote.
          • .
          • (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Research Report R81-1)
          • H.F. Ladd with Howard Bloom and John Yinger.
          • (August, 1980).
          • Intrajurisdictional Property Tax Capitalization.
          • .
          • (Final Report to Department of Housing and Urban Development)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (July, 1980).
          • What Economics Can Contribute to the Tax Limitation Debate.
          • .
          • (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Discussion Paper D80-8)
          • H.F. Ladd with Robert Schafer.
          • (June, 1980).
          • Equal Credit Opportunity in Mortgage Lending: Summary of Results.
          • .
          • (Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard University, Workign Paper No. 65)
          • H.F. Ladd with Robert Schafer.
          • (November, 1979).
          • Equal Credit Opportunity; Accessibility to Mortgage Funds by Women and Blacks.
          • .
          • (final technical report to the Department of Housing and Urban Development, vols. 1 and 2)
      • Published Policy Briefs and Comments

          • HF Ladd.
          • (2013).
          • Education Inspectorate Systems in New Zealand and the Netherlends: ( Policy Brief ).
          • (5(3)378-392)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • Public and Private School Competition and U.S. Fiscal Federalism..
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • Rethinking the Way We Hold Schools Accountable.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2008).
          • Opinion pice on education policy and the presidential election.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2004).
          • Policy Brief on Accountability in North Carolina.
          • Education Finance Research Consortium.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2004).
          • Comments on paper by Joseph Cordes.
          • Edward Elgar Press.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (Fall, 2003).
          • Comments on paper of school vouchers by Caroline Hoxby.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2001).
          • Self-Governing Schools and Accountability in New Zealand.
          • (published in many different languages)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (2001).
          • Comments on Thomas Kane and Douglas Staiger, "Volatility in Test Scores: Implications for Test Based Accountability Systems.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (November 2000).
          • The Empty Aisles of Marketplace Reform.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (Fall 2000).
          • A Level Playing Field: What We Can Learn from the New Zealand School Reform?.
          • H.F. Ladd with Edward Fiske.
          • (Summer 2000).
          • When Schools Compete: Lessons Learned From New Zealand's Experiments with Market-Based Reforms.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1998).
          • How School Districts Respond to Fiscal Constraint.
          • National Center for Education Statistics.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1997).
          • Comments on chapter by Tom Loveless.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1997).
          • Fiscal Disparities and Fiscal Equalization.
          • National Tax Association and the Urban Institute.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (Tuesday, July 30, 1996).
          • Testimony on HR 3467 "Saving Our Children: The American Community Renewal Act of 1996.
          • (Hearings sponsored by the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Economic and Education Opportunities)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1995).
          • Comments on paper by Garrett Mandeville on South Carolina's school incentive program.
          • Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1995).
          • The Tax Expenditure Concept After 25 Years.
          • (Long version. Presidential address to the National Tax Association, delivered in Charleston, South Carolina, November 1994)
          • H.F. Ladd with John Yinger.
          • (May, 1992).
          • Economic Change and Fiscal Health: Designing Federal Aid for our Most Troubled Central Cities.
          • (Prepared for the Senate Task Force on Community and Urban Revitalization)
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (May 17, 1990).
          • Puerto Rican Statehood: A Precondition to Sound Economic Growth.
          • (written testimony prepared for the Senate Finance committee hearing on S. 712)
          • H.F. Ladd with John Yinger.
          • (September, 1986).
          • Measuring the Fiscal Capacity of U.S. Cities.
          • Washingon, DC.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (November, 1980).
          • Comments on George Zodrow, Optimal Tax Reform: Property Tax Equalization, "National Tax Association - Tax Institute of America.
          • H.F. Ladd.
          • (1974).
          • Local Public Expenditures and the Composition of the Property Tax Base.
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