Gale Allen Boyd

Gale Allen Boyd

Associate Research Professor of Economics

External Address: 
261 Gross Hall, Box 90989, Durham, NC 27708
(919) 660-6892

Gale Boyd is an Associate Research Professor in the Social Science Research Institute & Department of Economics. He was the Director of the Triangle Federal Statistical Research Data Center from 2006-2020.  Prior to joining Duke University, Gale was an economist at Argonne National Laboratory. His career has been primarily in area of industrial energy/environmental economics. 

His recent work includes using the non-public Census micro-data and other non-pubic data from industry and trade associations on energy, environmental, and productivity related issues for industrial energy efficiency and related energy/environmental policy research. His research includes preparing statistical benchmarks of energy performance in manufacturing plants, or Energy Performance Indicators (EPI), is supported by the EPA ENERGY STAR program and is used by industry for energy management and public recognition from ENERGY STAR.  Studies of the implications of management practices and environmental policy on industry energy efficiency and total factor productivity are in progress.


  • Ph.D., Southern Illinois University 1984

Sanstad, A. H., S. J. DeCanio, G. A. Boyd, and J. G. Koomey. “Estimating bounds on the economy-wide effects of the CEF policy scenarios.” Energy Policy 29, no. 14 (January 1, 2001): 1299–1311. Full Text

Dowd, J., K. Friedman, and G. A. Boyd. “How well do voluntary agreements and programs perform at improving industrial energy efficiency?Proceedings Aceee Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry 2 (January 1, 2001): 125–39.

Boyd, G. A., and J. X. Pang. “Estimating the linkage between energy efficiency and productivity.” Energy Policy 28, no. 5 (May 1, 2000): 289–96. Full Text

Boyd, G. A., and J. D. McClelland. “The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement in integrated paper plants.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 38, no. 2 (January 1, 1999): 121–42. Full Text

Boyd, G. A. “Impacts of industrial decision making on productivity and energy efficiency: examples from the integrated paper sector.” Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference 3–4 (December 1, 1997): 2132–37.

Boyd, G. A., J. M. Roop, and M. G. Woodruff. “Potential for energy efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: the industrial sector.” Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference 3–4 (December 1, 1997): 2126–31.

Woodruff, M. G., G. A. Boyd, and J. M. Poop. “Potential for industrial energy efficiency technology to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.” Proceedings Aceee Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, December 1, 1997, 361–72.

Boyd, G., S. H. Karlson, M. Neifer, and M. Ross. “ENERGY INTENSITY IMPROVEMENTS IN STEEL MINIMILLS.” Contemporary Economic Policy 11, no. 3 (January 1, 1993): 88–100. Full Text

Boyd, G., S. Karlson, M. Neifer, and M. Ross. “Energy Intensity Improvements in Steel Minimills.” Contemporary Policy Issues XI, no. 3 (1993): 88–99.

Boyd, G., and S. Karlson. “The Impact of Energy Prices on Technology Choice in the United States Steel Industry.” Energy Journal 14, no. 2 (1993): 47–56.