William A. Darity

William A. Darity

Professor of Economics

External Address: 
238 Sanford Inst Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Internal Office Address: 
Box 90245, Durham, NC 27708-0245
(919) 613-7336

William A. (“Sandy”) Darity Jr. is the Samuel DuBois Cook Professor of Public Policy, African and African American Studies, and Economics and the director of the Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity at Duke University. He has served as chair of the Department of African and African American Studies and was the founding director of the Research Network on Racial and Ethnic Inequality at Duke. Previously he served as director of the Institute of African American Research, director of the Moore Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Program, director of the Undergraduate Honors Program in economics, and director of Graduate Studies at the University of North Carolina. at Chapel Hill.

Darity’s research focuses on inequality by race, class and ethnicity, stratification economics, schooling and the racial achievement gap, North-South theories of trade and development, skin shade and labor market outcomes, the economics of reparations, the Atlantic slave trade and the Industrial Revolution, the history of economics, and the social psychological effects of exposure to unemployment.

He was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation (2015-2016), a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (2011-2012) at Stanford, a fellow at the National Humanities Center (1989-90) and a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve’s Board of Governors (1984). He received the Samuel Z. Westerfield Award in 2012 from the National Economic Association, the organization's highest honor, Politico 50 recognition in 2017, and an award from Global Policy Solutions in 2017. He is a past president of the National Economic Association and the Southern Economic Association. He also has taught at Grinnell College, the University of Maryland at College Park, the University of Texas at Austin, Simmons College and Claremont-McKenna College.

He has served as Editor in Chief of the latest edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Macmillan Reference, 2008) and as an Associate Editor of the 2006 edition of the Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (2013).

His most recent book, coauthored with A. Kirsten Mullen, is From Here to Equality: Reparations for Black Americans in the 21st Century (2020). Previous books include For-Profit Universities: The Shifting Landscape of Marketized Education (2010) (co-edited Tressie McMillan Cottom), Economics, Economists, and Expectations: Microfoundations to Macroapplications (2004) (co-authored with Warren Young and Robert Leeson), and Boundaries of Clan and Color: Transnational Comparisons of Inter-Group Disparity (2003) (co-edited with Ashwini Deshpande).He has published or edited 13 books and published more than300 articles in professional outlets.

Darity lives with his family in Durham, N.C. where he plays blues harmonica, occasionally coaches youth sports, and especially enjoys reading science fiction and speculative fiction. (On leave, 2015-2016)


  • Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1978
  • B.A., Brown University 1974

Diette, T. M., A. H. Goldsmith, D. Hamilton, and W. Darity. “Adult happiness and prior traumatic victimization in and out of the household.” Review of Economics of the Household 16, no. 2 (June 1, 2018): 275–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-016-9334-0. Full Text

Broady, K. E., C. L. Todd, and W. A. Darity. “Passing and the Costs and Benefits of Appropriating Blackness.” Review of Black Political Economy 45, no. 2 (June 1, 2018): 104–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0034644618789182. Full Text

Darity, W., and D. Hamilton. “The Federal Job Guarantee.” Intereconomics 53, no. 3 (May 1, 2018): 179–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10272-018-0744-5. Full Text

Paul, M., W. Darity, D. Hamilton, and K. Zaw. “A path to ending poverty by way of ending unemployment: A federal job guarantee.” Rsf 4, no. 3 (February 1, 2018): 44–63. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2018.4.3.03. Full Text

Akee, R., S. K. Stockly, W. Darity, D. Hamilton, and P. Ong. “The role of race, ethnicity and tribal enrolment on asset accumulation: an examination of American Indian tribal nations.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 40, no. 11 (September 2, 2017): 1939–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2016.1216141. Full Text

Hamilton, D., and W. A. Darity. “The political economy of education, financial literacy, and the racial wealth gap.” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 99, no. 1 (January 1, 2017): 59–76. https://doi.org/10.20955/r.2017.59-76. Full Text

Boshara, Ray, and William A. Darity. “Keynote Conversation.” Review 99, no. 1 (2017): 103–20. https://doi.org/10.20955/r.2017.103-120. Full Text

Zhang, L., R. V. Sharpe, S. Li, and W. A. Darity. “Wage differentials between urban and rural-urban migrant workers in China.” China Economic Review 41 (December 1, 2016): 222–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2016.10.004. Full Text

Cobb, Ryon J., Courtney S. Thomas, Whitney N. Laster Pirtle, and William A. Darity. “Self-identified race, socially assigned skin tone, and adult physiological dysregulation: Assessing multiple dimensions of "race" in health disparities research.Ssm  Population Health 2 (December 2016): 595–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.06.007. Full Text

Ramraj, Chantel, Faraz Vahid Shahidi, William Darity, Ichiro Kawachi, Daniyal Zuberi, and Arjumand Siddiqi. “Equally inequitable? A cross-national comparative study of racial health inequalities in the United States and Canada.Social Science & Medicine (1982) 161 (July 2016): 19–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.05.028. Full Text


Darity, W. A., and A. Jolla. “Desegregated schools with segregated education.” In The Integration Debate: Competing Futures for American Cities, 99–117, 2009. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203890462. Full Text

Myers, S. L., W. A. Darity, and K. Marsh. “The effects of housing market discrimination on earnings inequality.” In The Integration Debate: Competing Futures for American Cities, 119–29, 2009. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203890462. Full Text

Darity, W. A. “African American reparations, Keynes, and the transfer problem.” In Keynes for the Twenty-First Century: The Continuing Relevance of The General Theory, 199–206, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230611139. Full Text

Darity, W., and W. Young. “On rewriting chapter 2 of the general theory keynes’s concept of involuntary unemployment.” In A “Second Edition” of the General Theory, 20–27, 2006. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203980316-13. Full Text

Darity, W. A., and P. L. Mason. “Evidence on discrimination in employment: Codes of color, codes of gender.” In The African American Urban Experience: Perspectives from the Colonial Period to the Present, 156–86, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781403979162. Full Text


Selected Grants

A New Research Program on Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Self-Employment awarded by JPMorgan Chase Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2018

Stratification Economics and a Gendered Analysis Around Closing the Wealth Gap awarded by Nathan Cummings Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2018

National Asset Scorecard for Communities of Color, Phase V awarded by Ford Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2017

DC Convening awarded by Institute of International Education (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2017

Reflections on the 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment: From Emancipation to Freedom? awarded by Kellogg Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2016 to 2017

Data Extraction from National Asset Scorecard for Communities of Color awarded by Association for Enterprise Opportunity (Principal Investigator). 2016

National Asset Scorecard for Communities of Color, Phase IV awarded by Ford Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2016

NASCC in Baltimore awarded by Annie E. Casey Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2016